Colic in Horses: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Colic is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in horses. It refers to abdominal pain that can be caused by a variety of factors, including impaction, gas, and inflammation. The severity of colic can range from mild discomfort to a life-threatening emergency, and prompt veterinary attention is crucial in all cases.

Symptoms of colic in horses can vary widely and may include behaviors such as pawing, rolling, lying down and getting up repeatedly, sweating, and loss of appetite. While colic can occur in horses of all ages and breeds, certain factors such as age, diet, and management practices can increase a horse’s risk. As such, it is important for horse owners and caretakers to be aware of the signs of colic and take steps to prevent it whenever possible.

If left untreated, colic can lead to serious complications such as dehydration, shock, and even death. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, many cases of colic can be resolved successfully. In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for colic in horses, as well as strategies for prevention and management.

Understanding Colic in Horses

Colic in horses is a term used to describe abdominal pain. It is a common condition that can affect horses of all ages, breeds, and disciplines. Colic can be caused by a variety of factors, including digestive problems, blockages, and inflammation.

Symptoms of colic can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. Horses with colic may exhibit signs such as:

  • Restlessness
  • Pawing at the ground
  • Rolling or lying down excessively
  • Lack of appetite
  • Abnormal behavior or posture
  • Sweating
  • Elevated heart rate or breathing rate

If you suspect that your horse may have colic, it is important to contact your veterinarian immediately. Early intervention can improve the chances of a positive outcome.

In order to prevent colic in horses, it is important to maintain a healthy diet and feeding schedule. Horses should have access to clean water and forage at all times, and their feed should be of high quality. Regular exercise and turnout can also help prevent colic.

Types of Colic

Colic in horses can be classified into various types based on the underlying cause. Here are some of the most common types of colic:

Gas Colic

Gas colic is the most common type of colic in horses. It occurs when there is a build-up of gas in the horse’s intestines, causing mild to moderate discomfort. The excess gas production can be caused by a variety of factors, including changes in diet, lack of exercise, and stress. Symptoms of gas colic include restlessness, pawing, kicking at the belly, and stretching out as if to urinate.

Impaction Colic

Impaction colic occurs when there is a blockage in the horse’s intestinal tract, preventing the normal flow of food and fluids. This type of colic can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, lack of exercise, and ingestion of foreign objects. Symptoms of impaction colic include decreased or absent bowel movements, loss of appetite, and restlessness.

Sand Colic

Sand colic occurs when the horse ingests sand, which accumulates in the intestines and causes irritation and inflammation. This type of colic is more common in horses that graze on sandy soil or are fed on the ground. Symptoms of sand colic include weight loss, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

Enteritis Colic

Enteritis colic occurs when there is inflammation of the horse’s small intestine. This type of colic can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, dietary changes, and stress. Symptoms of enteritis colic include fever, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain.

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In addition to these types of colic, there are other less common types that can occur in horses. It is important for horse owners to be aware of the symptoms of colic and seek veterinary attention immediately if they suspect their horse is experiencing any type of colic.

Symptoms and Signs

Colic in horses can present itself in a variety of ways, but there are some common symptoms and signs that horse owners should be aware of. These may include both physical and behavioral signs.

Physical Signs

Physical signs of colic in horses may include abdominal pain, sweating, increased heart rate, depression, and more. Horses experiencing colic may bite or kick their flank, paw the ground or air, roll, and lie down frequently. They may also have little or no passing of manure, or pass fecal balls that are smaller than usual.

In addition, the horse’s gums may be tacky or dry, and they may exhibit abnormal breathing or dullness. It is important to note that not all horses will exhibit all of these physical signs, and some may only show a few.

Behavioral Signs

Behavioral signs of colic in horses can be just as important as physical signs. Horses experiencing colic may frequently look at their side, and may bite or kick their belly or flank. They may also be restless and exhibit signs of discomfort, such as pacing or circling.

Depression is also a common behavioral sign of colic in horses. They may appear lethargic, dull, or uninterested in their surroundings. It is important to note that these behavioral signs may be subtle, and may not be immediately noticeable to the horse owner.

Diagnosis of Colic

Diagnosing colic in horses can be a challenging task that requires a thorough examination by a veterinarian. The diagnosis process usually involves a combination of physical examination, rectal exam, ultrasound, and abdominocentesis.

Physical Exam

During the physical exam, the veterinarian will observe the horse’s behavior, heart rate, and respiratory rate. They will also listen to the gut sounds and check for any signs of abdominal pain, such as pawing, rolling, or kicking at the belly.

Rectal Exam

A rectal exam is a critical component of the colic diagnosis process. The veterinarian will insert their arm into the horse’s rectum to feel for any abnormalities, such as impactions, twists, or displacements. This exam can also help to determine the severity of the colic and the appropriate treatment.


An ultrasound can be a valuable tool in diagnosing colic in horses. It can help to visualize any abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract, such as impactions or twists. This non-invasive procedure can also be used to monitor the progress of treatment and guide further diagnostic tests.


Abdominocentesis, also known as a belly tap, involves inserting a needle into the horse’s abdomen to collect a sample of fluid. This test can help to diagnose conditions such as peritonitis, which can cause colic symptoms. The fluid sample can also be analyzed to determine if surgery is necessary.

In addition to these diagnostic tests, the veterinarian will also take a thorough history of the horse’s health and any recent changes in diet or management. By combining all of these diagnostic tools, the veterinarian can make an accurate diagnosis of colic and develop an appropriate treatment plan for the horse.

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Treatment and Management

When a horse is diagnosed with colic, prompt treatment is crucial to prevent further complications. The treatment and management of colic in horses depend on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. This section will discuss the two primary methods of treatment: medication and fluids, and surgery.

Medication and Fluids

The first line of treatment for colic in horses involves medication and fluids to relieve pain, correct dehydration, and restore electrolyte balance. The veterinarian may administer medication, such as Banamine, to alleviate pain and inflammation. Additionally, the horse may be given fluids, either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to restore hydration and electrolyte balance.

In cases where the horse is not responding to pain relief medication and fluids, more aggressive medical treatment may be required. This may include the use of intestinal lubricants and laxatives to help move blockages through the digestive tract, or larvicidal deworming to eliminate any parasites that may be causing the colic.


In severe cases of colic, surgery may be necessary to correct the underlying issue. Colic surgery involves making an incision in the horse’s abdomen to access and correct the problem. This may include removing an intestinal blockage, correcting a twisted intestine, or repairing a perforation.

It is important to note that not all cases of colic require surgery. The decision to perform colic surgery is based on the severity of the condition, the horse’s overall health, and the potential risks and benefits of the procedure. In some cases, the veterinarian may recommend euthanasia as the most humane option.

Prevention Strategies

Colic is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in horses. Preventing colic is key to ensuring the health and well-being of horses. There are several strategies that horse owners can use to prevent colic, including feeding practices, exercise, and turnout.

Feeding Practices

Feeding practices play a critical role in preventing colic. The type and amount of feed, as well as the feeding schedule, can all impact a horse’s digestive health. Horses should be fed high-quality hay and grain and have access to clean water at all times. Forage should be the primary source of feed, and horses should be fed small, frequent meals throughout the day rather than large meals.

Overfeeding can also lead to colic, so it’s important to monitor a horse’s weight and adjust their feeding schedule accordingly. Horse owners should also avoid sudden changes in diet, as this can upset a horse’s digestive system and increase the risk of colic.

Exercise and Turnout

Exercise and turnout are also important in preventing colic. Regular exercise can help keep a horse’s digestive system healthy and prevent constipation. Turnout on pasture is also beneficial, as it allows horses to graze and move around freely.

However, it’s important to introduce horses to pasture turnout slowly and monitor them closely for signs of colic. Horses should also have access to shelter and clean water while turned out.

In addition to pasture turnout, horse owners can also provide other forms of exercise, such as lunging or riding. However, it’s important not to overexert horses, as this can also increase the risk of colic.

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Complications and Prognosis

The prognosis for a horse with colic depends on several factors, including the severity and cause of the colic, the age and overall health of the horse, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In some cases, colic can be resolved with medical management alone, while in other cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

According to the American College of Veterinary Surgeons, horses that are treated medically or those treated surgically that did not require removal of any portion of the intestine have a good prognosis. However, prognosis varies greatly depending on the cause of the colic and how systemically compromised the horse was at the time of surgery and if there were any postoperative complications.

Complications can arise during and after colic surgery. Postoperative complications include incisional infections, colitis, and laminitis. The risk of complications is higher in horses undergoing surgery for strangulating lesions, such as volvulus or torsion, than in those undergoing surgery for simple obstructions.

In some cases, despite appropriate treatment, the horse’s condition may worsen, and euthanasia may be the only humane option. Horses with severe impactions, displacement, strangulation, or entrapment are at higher risk of poor outcomes, and the decision to euthanize should be made in consultation with a veterinarian.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you recognize the early signs of colic in horses?

The early signs of colic in horses can include pawing, looking at their sides, kicking at their abdomen, rolling, sweating, and restlessness. Horses may also refuse to eat, have decreased or no bowel movements, and show signs of discomfort when lying down. It is important to monitor your horse closely and contact a veterinarian immediately if you suspect colic.

Is colic in horses contagious to other horses?

No, colic in horses is not contagious to other horses. Colic is typically caused by gastrointestinal issues such as impaction, gas, or torsion, and is not caused by a virus or bacteria.

What are the first signs of colic in horses?

The first signs of colic in horses can include restlessness, pawing, and looking at their sides. Horses may also exhibit signs of discomfort when lying down, refuse to eat, and have decreased or no bowel movements. If you suspect colic, it is important to contact a veterinarian immediately.

What is the best way to treat colic in horses?

The best way to treat colic in horses depends on the cause and severity of the condition. Mild cases of colic may be treated with medication, while more severe cases may require surgery. Treatment may also involve fluid therapy, pain management, and monitoring of vital signs.

Should you walk a horse with colic?

Walking a horse with colic may be beneficial in some cases, as it can help stimulate bowel movements and prevent the horse from lying down and rolling. However, it is important to consult with a veterinarian before walking a horse with colic, as some types of colic may require the horse to remain still.

Can horses survive colic?

Yes, horses can survive colic with prompt and appropriate treatment. However, the prognosis depends on the cause and severity of the colic. Some cases of colic may be mild and easily treated, while others may require surgery and have a lower chance of survival. It is important to contact a veterinarian immediately if you suspect colic in your horse.

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